Rajanpur is famed with Makhdoom Sheikh Rajan Shah. The historical background of the district reveals that “Hindu Raja Harnacus” and his son “Lok Bhagat had constructed the Fort of Harrand on the style of Monojodero. That is the reason arrangement of Harrand Fort seems contemporary society of Monojodero. Muslim rulers from Muhammad Bin Qasim to Ahmed Shah Abdali had maintained their sovereignty at this area. When the Region of Harrand was being ruled by Nadir Shah, he gifted this area to Makhdoom Sheikh Rajan Shah (his Kardar) in recognition of construction of Qutab Canal. Later on, the said Makhdoom Sheikh Rajan Shah added word “Pur” after his name during the year, 1732-33. Since, it is called Rajanpur.
The area of Rajanpur District had been remained under the domination of different rulers i.e. Baloch tribes, Nadir Shah Barohi, Khan of Qalat, Mahraja Ranjeet Singh, Nawab of Bahawalpur and Sawansigh. When the British rulers attacked the Sub-Continent during the year 1849, this area came under the Flag of British Government. The Baloch tribes who were famous due to their stubbornness refused to accept the regime of British Government. Since the Western border was inhabited by Baloch tribes on both sides. Border Military Police was created and area was divided into two parts i.e. settled as “A” and tribal belt was declared as B-Area. Tribal area is a hilly linear make longer running North to South.
Previously Rajanpur was Sub-Divisional Headquarter of District Dera Ghazi Khan. It was created as independent district on 01.07.1982. The topography layout and the area adjacent to Suleman hills are always very friendly abode for the criminals. The Western part of the district is adjacent to Dera Bugti Agency, Kohlu Agency and Barkhan Agency (Balochistan Province). Rajanpur, 29:06N, 70:19E, is a city and the headquarters of the Rajanpur district and tahsil in the extreme southwest part of Punjab, Pakistan. The district lies entirely west of the Sindhu river (Indus river); it is a narrow, 20 to 40 miles wide strip of land sandwitched between the Sindhu river on the east and the Sulaiman range of hills and mountains on the west. The town is just about nine miles from the right (west) bank of the river. In 1998 it had a community of 42,986.